“Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders, such as use for scholarship or review. It provides for the legal, non-licensed citation or incorporation of copyrighted material in another author’s work under a four-factor balancing test. It is based on free speech rights provided by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.”

“The fair dealing clauses of the Canadian Copyright Act allow users to make single copies of portions of works for “research and private study.” Similar to the fair use doctrine of United States copyright law, Canada’s fair dealing is not seen as an infringement at all.”